FAQs on Ch. 3 of Backhouse – the 16th Century
1.What historical event, centered in Italy, was of importance to the emergence of modern science? Explain your answer.
2.Copernicus thought that the earth revolved around the sun, instead of the other way around. What objection, in the form of a question, was raised by those who opposed Copernicus? Since Copernicus could not answer this question, who subsequently gave a reasonable answer or answers?
3.What were the two main scientific or philosophical contributions of William of Ockham? (Hint: One of these contributions is not mentioned in Backhouse, but you can try to Google the answer.)
4.In the medieval world view, sovereignty came from God, hence kings ruled by divine right. With the Reformation, what became the basis for the legitimization of sovereignty?
5.Who were the early rulers of nascent nation-states? What did they acquire with their rise to such positions?
6.Summarize the doctrines of mercantilism.
7.What did Machiavelli contribute to political science? Explain.
8.Summarize the economic thought of the School of Salamanca, especially in terms of how it differs from the previous thoughts of Aristotle and Aquinas.