There is no need to submit your answers. We will discuss them in class.
- Classify the following markets as competitive (C), oligopolistic (O), monopoly (M), monopolistic competition (MC) or none of the preceding (N). In your answer, include the possibility of illegal producers or consumers. You should answer N, if the demand side of the market is not competitive, but the supply side is. [6 pts.]
_____ (a) law enforcement services
_____ (b) cell phone service
_____ (c) wives or husbands (aka the marriage market)
_____ (d) kangkong, tomatoes, onions
_____ (e) Nokia cell phones
_____ (f) security guard services
- The main difference between perfect competitors and monopolistic competitors is: [choose one only – 3 pts.]
____ (a) There are many perfect competitors, while there are usually only a handful of monopolistic competitors.
____ (b) Product innovation is not important for perfect competitors, whereas monopolistic competition would not exist unless sellers can produce “branded” products by using or adapting new technology.
____ (c) In the long run, there is zero profit in perfect competition, while there is a small positive profit for monopolistic competitors.
- Match the concept with the appropriate statement: [4 pts.]
|Price leadership, or a market dominated by a large firm||A. An agreement to collude, allocating market shares and setting prices.|
|Contestable market||B. Ease of entry or exit|
|One firm is the only seller||C. Small firms behave like perfect competitors because they cannot control the price.|
- In terms of how they deal with consumer demand, the main difference between oligopoly and monopolistic competition is: [choose one only; 3 pts.]
____ (a) Oligopolists set the price by conspiring with each other to form a cartel, whereas monopolistic competitors do not engage in overt conspiracy (i.e. they set the price by secret means).
____ (b) Oligopolists tend to engage in advertising to steal market share, whereas a monopolistic competitor does not bother to differentiate his product from that of his competitor.
____ (c) Oligopolists face a downward sloping demand curve, whereas monopolistic competitors face a slightly downward sloping demand curve. As a result, monopolistic competitors set price without worrying about the prices set by others, whereas oligopolists cannot set the price independently of each other.
- Which of the following are valid justifications for monopoly? [Check as many as there are – 4 pts.]
______Where there are economies of scale (there is a natural monopoly), society is better off because production is at the lowest resource cost.
______Monopoly from patents given to investors encourage innovation that benefits mankind.
______Where there are few barriers to entry, and more-or-less constant-average-cost to produce the given product, the result is a contestable monopoly, and here, the monopolist sets prices as though it was producing in a perfectly competitive market in order not to lose his monopolist status.
______Where there is extreme income inequality, and a generally perceived need to provide low-cost access to the given product, a legislated monopoly through licenses (such as for lawyers, doctors, etc.), makes it possible to provide for mandated low prices for a target group of “needy” consumers.