It isn’t just the price of rice that keeps the poor poor. It’s the oli-cartels, the land use rules, the dysfunctional educational system, even the labor law. There is much to do, and mega-infra is just a small part (but perhaps lucrative).
develop a thesis topic.
The goal is to convince your stakeholders (parent, teachers, future employers) that you have learned a substantial amount of economics, although the gain is more yours than theirs.
So, there, for the Christmas break, take some time to smell the academic coffee. Read. Do it at Starbucks. At Jollibee. On the web. But don’t strain your eyes.
For EC42 students:
Just a link for now.
In this site, you can read prize-winning student essays. I’m guessing that the winners are essay-form versions of student dissertations.
You may get an idea on how to structure a topic and proposal for your own thesis from reading and learning from the student essays.
This is a good summary of the Pigou vs. Coase debate on externalities. I have one comment: That the author should have brought Hayek into the picture. After all, the piece was published in 1996. What follows is a kind of executive summary.
Demsetz sees the debate on externality as one between two ideals: An ideal state (with perfect information) and an ideal market (also with perfect information and zero transaction cost). Taken to the limit, both models do not generally produce identical solutions. It is well known that the initial distribution of wealth and income affects market outcomes. Change that distribution and the economy rests somewhere else. With Pigovian state intervention, one also needs to factor in the initial distribution of wealth and income as a determinant of political process. Still, it is reasonable to imagine that both models arrive at the same end-point if they started with the same initial conditions.
Demsetz then concludes, based only on theoretical considerations, that the choice between the two models is one determined by preferences for freedom and the final (and/or initial) distribution of incomes and wealth.
Once we depart from the ideal to actual governments and markets, the choice between the two solutions would then have to take into account how much information there is (available) in the competing models, and how well they would reduce transaction cost. Here, Hayek would pronounce in favor of Coase, if only because Hayek believes that the market is more capable of ‘discovering’ such phenomena as efficient technologies and consumer preferences. Transaction cost can be seen as another form of externality, so we start to run the risk of arriving at a proverbial slippery slope.
Nonetheless, Demsetz is essentially right. Transaction cost is not at the kernel of Coase; and neither did Pigou ignore transaction cost. What was being debated was who should have the property rights to the externality, a question that economists usually avoid but one that Coase faced head on.
Here are 12 important articles to help you understand sound economics, ideally before you head off to grad school in economics.
Note: Coase, Hayek, McCloskey, Alchian, Buchanan, Friedman, Lucas
Here’s a link to a discussion on statistics. If you did some thinking, many things you don’t see have a powerful story. Bastiat is famous for the cases of the unseen.
Hat tip to Don Boudreaux.
For readings, please refer to my lecture notes on macroeconomics, and to Mankiw’s chapter on the natural rate of unemployment. For extra-credit questions, you may have to do further research or readings.
Please answer the following questions, and submit your answers by email by March 2, 2016.
- What is the most important difference between microeconomics and macroeconomics?
- Explain Say’s Law. Why is it important for an understanding of macroeconomics?
- How does Mankiw define the natural rate of unemployment?
- According to Mankiw, what are the four reasons why the natural rate of unemployment is not zero? Are these reasons important in the context of the Philippine economy?
- It is said that macroeconomics is essentially the economics of unemployment and inflation. Why, in your opinion (based on your readings or research), do policy-makers not aim for zero unemployment and zero inflation?
- Extra credit: What is the Okun Index of Misery? Can it be improved by including a poverty index?
- Even more extra credit: Construct an Okun Misery Index for the Philippine economy. How far back in time could you go? (Hint: data may be available in the websites of BSP and IMF.) Is it affected by the prevailing economic policies of various Presidents? (Anyone – even a group of up to three – answering this question well will be exempted from taking a final exam.)
- Extra credit: Explain in your own words the Neoclassical Synthesis (this is from previous studies in EC 12, History of Economic Thought).